Shih, T.K., Te-Hua Wang, Chih-Yung Chang, Tai-Chien Kao and Douglas Hamilton, “Ubiquitous e-Learning with Multimodal Multimedia Devices,” IEEE Transactions on Multimedia, Vol. 9, No. 3, 2007.
The Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM) is a set of specifications and guidelines for the representation and operation of asynchronous distance learning. Since it was announced in late 1990s, the reference model has been used by software developers and academics in the development of authoring tools, learning management systems, and repositories for distance learning content. To date, most e-learning systems have been based on multimedia and Web technologies on personal computers. Our project, Hard SCORM, advances the field by implementing an integrated system which allows learners to read SCORM-compliant textbooks using multimodal multimedia devices. Hard SCORM employs a pen-like optical character reader device (called Hyper Pen) as an input mechanism. A computer, a personal digital assistant, or a cellular phone can be used for user behavior supervision using the Hard SCORM Machine.With an authoring tool, specially designed tags are printed in textbooks and recognized by Hyper Pen for user navigation control. In this way, users can read hardcopy textbooks in a traditional manner while the process of reading conforms to the SCORM specification. Part of the implemented system (Pocket SCORM on PDA) received the 2005 Brandon Hall Excellence in Learning Awards. The system has also been used by an airline company for online security checking and a high school for online mobile learning.
Freya H. Lin and Shih, T.K.(corresponding), “Automatic Trap Detection A Debugging Mechanism for Abnormal Specification in the IMS Sequencing Controls,” IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies, Vol. 1, No. 3, 2008.
Adaptive learning is a challenging trend of distance education. In order to adapt diversified teaching in accordance with individual abilities, educators emphasize on constructing personalized courseware as an Internet-based application. To cope with the drawback of nonsupervised blind spots on the dynamic navigation of learners, the SCORM 2004 specification adds the concept of sequences (i.e., based on IMS Simple Sequence Specification) into its content delivery. Sequencing rules describe how individual navigation is invoked, what learning objects are delivered during the navigation process, and the potential outputs of the process. However, there is a potential leak from using sequence specification. It is possible for an instruction designer to make a mistake similar to that made by any programmer in software development. In other words, a sequencing trap results from improper sequence composition, which may block learning activities from a normal navigation. Although the problem can be manually checked with an ordinary SCORM presentation tool, nonsystematic debugging can be an unsound solution and a time consuming job, since the complexity of courseware is usually proportional to the occurrences of traps. We point out the sequencing trap problem and its solution by using a fully automatic mechanism for trap detection. A Petri net is used in the computation of sequencing traps. The contribution of this paper can be used as a first technique for automatic sequencing testing in the IMS Simple Sequence Specification and SCORM 2004.
Neil Y. Yen, Shih, T.K.(corresponding), Qun Jin, “LONET An Interactive Search Network for Intelligent Lecture Path Generation,” ACM Transactions on Intelligent Systems and Technology, 4(2): 30, 2013.
Sharing resources and information on the Internet has become an important activity for education. In distance learning, instructors can benefit from resources, also known as Learning Objects (LOs), to create plenteous materials for specific learning purposes. Our repository (called the MINE Registry) has been developed for storing and sharing learning objects, around 22,000 in total, in the past few years. To enhance reusability, one significant concept named Reusability Tree was implemented to trace the process of changes. Also, weighting and ranking metrics have been proposed to enhance the searchability in the repository. Following the successful implementation, this study goes further to investigate the relationships between LOs from a perspective of social networks. The LONET (Learning Object Network), as an extension of Reusability Tree, is newly proposed and constructed to clarify the vague reuse scenario in the past, and to summarize collaborative intelligence through past interactive usage experiences.We define a social structure in our repository based on past usage experiences from instructors, by proposing a set of metrics to evaluate the interdependency such as prerequisites and references. The structure identifies usage experiences and can be graphed in terms of implicit and explicit relations among learning objects. As a practical contribution, an adaptive algorithm is proposed to mine the social structure in our repository. The algorithm generates adaptive routes, based on past usage experiences, by computing possible interactive input, such as search criteria and feedback from instructors, and assists them in generating specific lectures.
Neil Y. Yen, Shih, T.K.(corresponding), Louis R. Chao, Qun Jin, “Ranking Metrics and Search Guidance for Learning Object Repository,” IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies, Vol. 3, No. 3, 2010.
In line with the popularity of the Internet and the development of search engine, users request information through webbased services. Although general-purpose searching such as one provided by Google is powerful, searching mechanism for specific purposes could rely on metadata. In distance learning (or e-learning), SCORM provides an efficient metadata definition for learning objects to be searched and shared. To facilitate searching in a federated repository, CORDRA provides a common architecture for discovering and sharing Learning Objects. We followed SCORM and CORDRA specifications to develop a registry system, called the MINE Registry, for storing and sharing 20,738 Learning Objects created in the past five years. As a contribution, we propose the concept of “Reusability Tree” to represent the relationships among relevant Learning Objects and enhance CORDRA. We further collect relevant information, while users are utilizing Learning Objects, such as citations and time period persisted. The feedbacks from the user community are also considered as critical elements for evaluating significance degree of Learning Objects. Through theses factors, we propose a mechanism to weight and rank Learning Objects in the MINE Registry, in addition to other external learning objects repositories. As a practical contribution, we provide a tool called “Search Guider” to assist users in finding relevant information in Learning Objects based on individual requirements.
Freya H. Lin, Shih, T.K.(corresponding), and Won Kim, “An Implementation of the CORDRA Architecture Enhanced for Systematic Reuse of Learning Objects,” IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, 21(6), 2009.
The Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM) specification defines metadata of learning objects, which are used as the elementary reusable components in distance learning. The Content Object Repository Discovery and Registration/ Resolution Architecture (CORDRA) specification provides a common architecture for the resolution, discovery, and sharing of these learning objects. These two specifications together define standardized ways in which learning objects can be discovered and reused by content designers. However, the current CORDRA and the definition of objects in SCORM only allow an object to be copied, updated, and reorganized in a new content aggregation, which is used as a delivery package to end users. This paper proposes a revised CORDRA architecture and a reusability mechanism to make instruction design easier. In particular, it proposes a structure called a reusability tree for tracking the history of reuse of learning objects in CORDRA. This paper also defines the notions of similarity, diversity, and relevancy of learning objects to make it easier for users to precisely search for and reuse learning objects.
Qing Li, Rynson W. H. Lau, Shih, T.K., Frederick W. B. Li, “Technology supports for distributed and collaborative learning over the internet,” ACM Transactions on Internet Technologies. 8(2), 2008.
With the advent of Internet and World Wide Web (WWW) technologies, distance education (elearning or Web-based learning) has enabled a new era of education. There are a number of issues that have significant impact on distance education, including those from educational, sociological, and psychological perspectives. Rather than attempting to cover exhaustively all the related perspectives, in this survey article, we focus on the technological issues. A number of technology issues are discussed, including distributed learning, collaborative learning, distributed content management, mobile and situated learning, and multimodal interaction and augmented devices for e-learning. Although we have tried to include the state-of-the-art technologies and systems here, it is anticipated that many new ones will emerge in the near future. As such, we point out several emerging issues and technologies that we believe are promising, for the purpose of highlighting important directions for future research.
- Keynote Speech, Software Systems for Virtual Academic Society, the 2001 International Conference on Intelligent Multimedia and Distance Education (ICCIMADE’01), Fargo, North Dakota, USA, June 1 – 3, 2001.
- Keynote Speech, Distance Education Technologies: Standards and Software Systems, the 2003 APRU Distance Learning and the Internet Conference, Singapore, December 1 – 2, 2003.
- Keynote Speech, Distance Education Technologies: Standards and Software Systems, the 2nd International Conference on Information Technology & Applications (ICITA 2004), Harbin, China, 8 – 11 January 2004.
- Keynote Speech, Ubiquitous Learning with SCORM, the 4th International Conference on Web-based Learning (ICWL 2005), Hong Kong, July 31 – August 3, 2005.
- Keynote Speech, Ubiquitous e-Learning with SCORM, the 2nd International Open and Distance Learning (IODL) Symposium, Eskisehir, Turkey, September 13 – 15, 2006.
- Keynote Speech, Ubiquitous e-Learning with SCORM, the Fourth International Conference on Cooperative Internet Computing (CIC 2006), Hong Kong, China, 25-27 October 2006.
- Keynote Speech, Distance Education Technologies for a New Virtual University Agora,the 26 Years International Federation for Systems Research (IFSR), Annual National Conference, Piraeus, Greece, May 24-26 2007.
- Keynote Speech, Ubiquitous e-Learning with SCORM, the First International Symposium on Information Technologies and Applications in Education (ISITAE07), Kunming, China, November 23-28, 2007.
- Keynote Speech, Repository and Search Based on Distance Learning Standards, the 2009 IEEE International Symposium on IT in Medicine & Education (ITME 2009), Jinan, China, August 10 – 12, 2009.
- Keynote Speech, Repository and Search Based on Distance Learning Standards, International Conference on Hybrid Learning 2009 (ICHL 2009), Macau, China, August 25-27, 2009.
- Keynote Speech, Repository and Search Based on Distance Learning Standards, IODL&ICEM 2010 Joint Conference and Media Days, Eskisehir, Turkey, October 6-8, 2010.
- Keynote Speech, Repository and Search Based on Distance Learning Standards, the 13th International Conference on Humans and Computers, Japan, December 8th – 10th, 2010.
- Keynote Speech, Reusability and Searchability of Learning Objects, the 2011 International Conference on Web-based Learning (ICWL’2011), Hong Kong, December 8 – 10, 2011.
- Keynote Speech, Reusability and Searchability of Learning Objects, the 2012 International Conference on Web Information Systems and Mining (WISM’12) and the 2012 International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Computational Intelligence (AICI’12), Chengdu, Sichuan, China, October 26-28, 2012.
- Keynote Speech, Repository and Search Based on Distance Learning Standards, the Third Information Education and Technological Applications Conference (IETAC 2009), Taichung, Taiwan, Nov. 6, 2009.
- Keynote Speech, Repository and Search Based on Distance Learning Standards, the 2009 International Conference on Computer and Network Technology in Education (CNTE2009), Hsinchu, Taiwan, November 26, 27, 2009.
Authoring Tool Demo Video:
（Hard Scorm Authoring Tool）